Bringing clean rural electrification into the spotlight

By Marcus Wiemann, Executive Director - ARE

OFID supports hybrid mini-grids

By Fuad Siala, Energy Adviser, OFID

Lack of access to electricity is primarily a rural problem. For locations that are small; remote and widely dispersed villages and communities often located in areas difficult to access for grid-connection to be a technically or economically feasible option, mini-grids constitute an intermediate solution, between conventional grid connection and stand-alone systems, for the provision of electricity.

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Lack of access to electricity is primarily a rural problem. For locations that are small; remote and widely dispersed villages and communities often located in areas difficult to access for grid-connection to be a technically or economically feasible option, mini-grids constitute an intermediate solution, between conventional grid connection and stand-alone systems, for the provision of electricity.

Mini-grids have been used for the electrification of remote areas for at least two decades, yet they remain a marginal option for electrifying rural villages. The key challenging factor, rather, is financial sustainability. In general, the capital costs and the operation and maintenance (O&M) requirements of mini-grids result in a high cost of energy, making it challenging to recover costs in poor villages with low income.

In the quest for lowering the levelised cost of electricity (LCoE) of a particular mini-grid project, specific circumstances and the availability of particular types of primary energy sources will dictate the most economic mini-grid technology solution. For example, the recent decrease in solar PV panel costs may render attractive 100% solar-battery mini-grids in a specific location. In another, a solar-diesel hybrid mini-grid may be the system of choice, while micro-hydropower continues to be least cost where the resource exists.

The OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID) firmly believes that access to reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound energy services is crucial for developing countries. OFID has recognised the importance of mini-grids and is giving strong priority to encouraging the private sector involvement in this market. A demonstration of this support is Grant Agreement signed between OFID and ARE in September 2015, with the aim of supporting the accelerated deployment, and promote the productive use of hybrid mini-grids. The financial aid extended by OFID is intended to provide a de-risking mechanism for business ventures to stimulate replication and scaling up.

Four ARE members will implement hybrid mini-grid systems

  • In Bangladesh, Rahimafrooz Renewable Energy Ltd will install a hybrid mini-grid that includes a 80 kWp PV plant and a 40 kW diesel genset in the Island of Muradpur, benefiting 310 households (1,430 people) and 40 productive users.
  • In Jharkhand, India, Association Mlinda will install 5 hybrid mini-grids in 5 rural villages, each comprising a 10 kWp PV power plant and a 7.5 kW diesel genset. In total, 250 households, 25 productive users and 5 public buildings will benefit from the project.
  • In Blendio, in the Sikasso Region of southern Mali, ACCESS S.A.R.L. will install a hybrid mini-grid that includes a 32 kWp PV plant and a 68 kW diesel genset, serving 300 households and 40 productive users.
  • In Mozambique, in the village of Titimane, Energias de Portugal, S.A. will install a PV/biomass hybrid mini-grid with a generating capacity of 100 kWp PV and 60 kW biomass gasification. 900 households, 33 productive users 3 community buildings will have access to electricity.

For all four projects, cash flow analysis that included the cost of equipment replacement, when required, and the tariff consumers are able and willing to pay for electricity indicated a positive Net Present Value (NPV) and an Investment Rate of Return (IRR) that is greater than the discount rate taken into account are only possible when OFID’s grant is included.

The project, recently cited by UN Deputy SG Mr. Jan Eliasson as an example of the successful partnerships needed to achieve SDG7, emphasises the potential for scaling up, and also local capacity building and the facilitation of the creation of partnerships to assist in the future development of projects (UN press release).

 

How solar hybridisation of mini-grids can open up new opportunities for rural businesses

By Benjamin Pallière, Rural Energy Expert, GERES

The development of decentralised solar hybrid power stations offers new opportunities to improve rural access to electricity. If the benefits of solar are harnessed, the terms of access and quality of electricity supply can almost match national grids: 24-hour availability with high power handling capability.

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The development of decentralised solar hybrid power stations offers new opportunities to improve rural access to electricity. If the benefits of solar are harnessed, the terms of access and quality of electricity supply can almost match national grids: 24-hour availability with high power handling capability. This is where rural micro-businesses – productive customers – come in. The first decentralised grids were of little benefit to them. Lacking appropriate operating hours, constrained by grids designed for domestic customers and seen as low priority when available power is limited, rural micro-businesses had to arrange their own energy sources. A regrettable state of affairs given that these micro-businesses provide people with jobs, products and services.

Not all rural localities are seeing the development of micro-businesses. Useful economic potential is found in towns which have over 5,000 inhabitants or a central position. In these places, providing a few hundred watts per customer based on a standard solution replicated from site to site is not enough to make the environment attractive to entrepreneurs. There is a need to understand the economic dynamics of the area; anticipate which activities will develop there; have precise details of the equipment proposed; adapt the sizing of both the hybrid power station and the grid accordingly; and set out or even require micro-businesses to fulfil the technical conditions needed to facilitate energy supply, including from appropriate, low-energy equipment.

Having worked on these issues in West Africa since 2007, GERES feels it is in the interests of the electricity suppliers themselves to address the needs of these productive customers:

  1. as micro-businesses primarily operate during the day, solar power consumption can be increased with no need for storage in a battery bank;
  2. most of them can be concentrated in appropriate sites (small business parks) close to the power stations;
  3. the economic model of micro-businesses enables them to pay more for electricity so long as quality is guaranteed.

In Mali, GERES has just launched an initial business park powered by a hybrid solar-Jatropha solution in Konséguéla. A second is due to open in Koury in 2016, integrated in the micro-grid operated by the SSD Yeelen Kura Company. The design of each system is based on precise knowledge of the load curves and economic model of each micro-business. Using relevant, efficient equipment (including smart grid and smart meter technology) in bioclimatic buildings, these business parks aim to offer the entrepreneurs a continual incentive (through variable pricing) to develop their businesses without jeopardising electricity production or distribution.

 

Haiti Microgrid Powered by Trojan Batteries

By Romina Arcamone Garcia, Market Manager – Renewable Energy & Backup Power, Trojan Battery Company

Establishment of clean energy micro-grids worldwide is increasing to supply power to remote villages not connected to the main electric grid, or only have access to electricity a few hours a day. A battery-based microgrid system ensures these areas have access to energy 24/7, enabling remote communities to operate lighting, communications, radios, TV and other electrical appliances.  Access to electricity also enhances productivity of local businesses and fosters the development of new commercial activities.   

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Establishment of clean energy micro-grids worldwide is increasing to supply power to remote villages not connected to the main electric grid, or only have access to electricity a few hours a day. A battery-based microgrid system ensures these areas have access to energy 24/7, enabling remote communities to operate lighting, communications, radios, TV and other electrical appliances.  Access to electricity also enhances productivity of local businesses and fosters the development of new commercial activities.   

The majority of Haiti has little to no access to grid power, and the town of Les Anglais was no exception. Thanks to a grant EarthSpark International received from the 'USAID Powering Agriculture: an Energy Grand Challenge for Development,' the organisation was able to implement a hybrid microgrid for the Les Anglais community.

This microgrid is the first of its kind in Haiti and includes 92 kW solar PV, a 400 kWh battery bank, and small backup diesel generator. Smart meters developed by SparkMeter serve residential and commercial customers, including agricultural processing facilities. After three years of feasibilities studies with a small group of customers, EarthSpark was ready to implement the SparkMeter system for the Les Anglais microgrid.  EarthSpark’s microgrid provides reliable electrical power to the community which consists of 430 households, businesses and farms, and the downtown area of Les Anglais.

The 92 kW solar PV solution is supported by a 480-volt battery bank container solution from Trojan Battery featuring 152 deep-cycle gel batteries with 38 batteries per string. Both the system’s inverter/charger and charge controller are provided by Princeton Power Systems.

Deep-cycle batteries are key components in photovoltaic applications to provide reliable energy storage. Batteries improve the reliability of microgrids, reducing operating costs of fuel consumption, fuel transportation, and maintenance of diesel generators. Selecting the right battery technology and type, as well as selecting the right vendor play an important part in implementing a successful project.

ZeroBase, a key project partner in charge of installation and commissioning of the microgrid, chose Trojan batteries based on their reputation for high quality and reliability, as well as Trojan’s experience in the region.  Trojan worked closely with ZeroBase to ensure the best battery technology was selected for the Les Anglais microgrid installation.

Clean microgrids are crucial to provide electricity in remote towns and regions around the world. It’s the first step to increasing the comfort, productivity and well-being of residents that would otherwise have limited opportunities.

 

CellCube energy storage systems – 100% reliable power supply for mini-grids

By Andreas Feichtinger, Area Sales Manager MEA – Telecom, GILDEMEISTER energy storage GmbH

In summer 2012, India faced the largest power breakdown in history, a blackout that plunged 600 million people into darkness. As a consequence SunCarrier Omega decided to invest in an off-grid Net Zero Energy Building – a highly energy-efficient building which produces as much energy over the year as it consumes. The project is located in Bhopal, in the central part of India, and is an example of how energy supply can be ensured by implementing environmentally friendly off-grid energy systems.  

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In summer 2012, India faced the largest power breakdown in history, a blackout that plunged 600 million people into darkness. As a consequence SunCarrier Omega decided to invest in an off-grid Net Zero Energy Building – a highly energy-efficient building which produces as much energy over the year as it consumes. The project is located in Bhopal, in the central part of India, and is an example of how energy supply can be ensured by implementing environmentally friendly off-grid energy systems.  

The project planning, engineering and the supply of the components as well as the intelligent control of the mini-grid system was carried out by GILDEMEISTER energy solutions, a German based company working in the field of energy efficiency, energy generation and energy storage.

The heart of this state of the art mini-grid is formed by three CellCube FB 10-100 energy storage systems which together provide 30 kW power output and 300 kWh of storage capacity. The CellCube is the world's leading Vanadium-Redox-Flow energy storage system and entirely designed and produced in Austria, Europe. Due to its 'Plug & Play' design, the installation time for this project was reduced to three days, as the system already comprises all components such as inverters, power electronics, battery management, housing and the monitoring system.

The batteries are powered by two SunCarrier 260 systems which produce the entire energy for the building. As one of the largest sun-tracking solar PV systems, the two SunCarrier 260 offer 67 kWp, with a planned yield of 130,000 kWh per annum. Excess energy produced during the day is stored in the CellCube, which in turn supplies clean energy during the night, and during monsoon days when the sun does not shine.

The described system has a design life of 25 years. The PLC controls and monitoring systems incorporated in the SunCarrier and the CellCube allow remote monitoring of critical performance parameters and take the rarely required preventive actions to ensure a smooth functioning of the system. Based on the Vanadium-Redox-Flow technology the CellCube offers a reliable and save solution. Both the storage and PV systems are over 95% recyclable, emit no harmful gases or effluents, and there are no heavy metals to dispose of, which makes the CellCube the right battery choice in environmentally sensitive regions where reliable power supply is needed.

For more information, please visit: www.energy.gildemeister.com/en

 

Bringing Mini-Grids to the Most Disadvantaged Communities

By Enrique Alcor, Head of Operations, Energía sin Fronteras

Energía sin Fronteras (Esf) is a non-profit organisation of volunteers working on energy, water access and sanitation projects to help the most disadvantaged people living in rural isolated areas. For this mission, mini-grids are a perfect way to develop our work in communities where the inhabitants live relatively close (publication: Study on mini-grids and its application to electrification of rural communities).

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Energía sin Fronteras (Esf) is a non-profit organisation of volunteers working on energy, water access and sanitation projects to help the most disadvantaged people living in rural isolated areas. For this mission, mini-grids are a perfect way to develop our work in communities where the inhabitants live relatively close (publication: Study on mini-grids and its application to electrification of rural communities).

Nyumbani (Kenya)

The Nyumbani project started in 2004 to accommodate and provide shelter to 1,000 children who became orphans as a consequence of HIV/AIDS suffered by their parents. The project was promoted by COGRI (Children of God Relief Institute). Each group of 10 children is looked after by a grandmother and receives education and capacity building to be able to succeed in their future life.

Esf designed a mini-grid to supply 167 kWh/day to schools, workshops, and hospital and to pump water to community centres. It consisted of 44.28 kWp photovoltaic panels, 2,760 Ah/12 V batteries, a three phase electricity distribution system and a diesel generator for emergencies.  The main innovation of the project is the design of a 20 ft. container where the inverters, batteries, distribution panels and protection devices are located. It was constructed, assembled and tested in Spain and then transferred to the site where it was plugged to the solar field, emergency diesel generator and distribution network. With this approach, it could be operated soon after its reception as a Plug & Play system.

This mini-grid saves 30,000 € of fuel per year, part of which is used for the project’s sustainability. Esf has also provided training to maintenance personnel. They will be in charge of the plant efficient operation. Other courses on photovoltaic energy were also provided to future technicians.

We acknowledge the support of the following companies: SunPower, Hidroeléctrica del Cantábrico, Iberdrola, Generalia, SMA, Praxia Energy y Sönnesnschein (EXIDE). Without their help, this plant could not be completed.

This second mini-grid designed and assembled by Esf, consisted of 198 SunPower panels (222Wp each), SMA inverters (Tripower and Sunny Island) and 3,950 Ah steady batteries. This plant fed more than 150 consumers, milling cooperatives, workshops, small shops, a mosque, the town hall and some houses in the center of the village. The workshops and houses pay 1,000 FC (about 1.50 €) per lamp per month. The money collected for the electric supply and the savings of diesel generator fuel, formerly in operation and now limited to emergencies in case of low sun irradiation, is used to cover the preventive maintenance and spares along the plant lifetime. Electricians were also trained to solve technical troubles that could happen in the future. Esf will provide the needed support to help them to ensure the plant’s sustainability.

We acknowledge the support of co-funders SunPower and Praxia Energy who provided the photovoltaic panels and support structures respectively.

 

Rwanda offers a strong policy and regulatory framework for mini-grid

By Dr. Mirco Gaul, Country Project Manager, Energising Development (EnDev) Rwanda

In March 2015, the Rwandese Government approved its new Energy Policy defining a 22% off-grid electrification target to be achieved by 2017/2018. This month, the Rwandese regulatory body RURA has just published the 'Regulation Governing the Simplified Licensing Framework for Rural Electrification in Rwanda'.

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By Dr. Mirco Gaul, Country Project Manager, Energising Development (EnDev) Rwanda

In March 2015, the Rwandese Government approved its new Energy Policy defining a 22% off-grid electrification target to be achieved by 2017/2018. This month, the Rwandese regulatory body RURA has just published the 'Regulation Governing the Simplified Licensing Framework for Rural Electrification in Rwanda'.

The regulation distinguishes four categories of mini-grids according to their installed capacity:

  1. for large mini-grids above 1 MW where the existing Electricity Licensing Regulation of 2013 applies,
  2. for medium size mini-grids of 100 – 1,000 kW, and
  3. for small mini-grids of 50 – 100 kW respectively the application requirements and process have been greatly simplified, while
  4. very small mini-grids below 50 kW do need no particular licence but only have to notify RURA.

The regulation does not provide fixed tariff ranges but only provides rules for tariff calculation by the operator. RURA reserves the right to review any tariff, especially in case of customer complaints. However, the mere comparison of the offered tariff to on-grid tariffs does not qualify as reason for complaint. The regulation also provides rules in case mini-grids are eventually connected to the main grid offering the mini-grid operator a range of options such as to convert into a small power producer and/or distributor (see below), to sell some of its assets to the utility, and/or, if feasible, to relocate some of its asset. In case of disagreement on purchase price and compensation for relocation, RURA will provide binding conflict resolution.

The regulation also defines a Small Distribution Licence (SPD) which offers a simplified distribution licence for private financed grid extension or densification projects up to 1 MW capacity and 20,000 customers. Same tariff rules apply as for mini-grids.

Licence application fee is 500 USD while the licence itself cost 2,000 USD for the SPD license, 1,000 USD for medium mini-grids of 100-1,000 kW and is free of charge for small mini-girds. The full regulation is accessible at the RURA website.

In support of the Government’s efforts on rural electrification, Energising Development Rwanda offers up to 70% subsidy on investments in privately owned and operated mini-grids of up to 100 kW installed capacity or grid extension (SPD) projects. The Call for Proposals closes on 31 December 2015.

 

Accelerating Rural Electrification in Kenya

By Jasmin Fraatz, Project Manager, GIZ

Mini-grid deployment is garnering increased attention for its potential to electrify remote rural areas in many parts of the globe. This is the case for Kenya; with rural electrification at less than 10%, complementary solutions to grid extension such as solar-hybrid mini-grids have the potential to quickly improve access to electrify remote areas. 

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By Jasmin Fraatz, Project Manager, GIZ

Mini-grid deployment is garnering increased attention for its potential to electrify remote rural areas in many parts of the globe. This is the case for Kenya; with rural electrification at less than 10%, complementary solutions to grid extension such as solar-hybrid mini-grids have the potential to quickly improve access to electrify remote areas. 

Yet along with the opportunities come challenges as well. One of the most pressing questions is whether mini-grids based on renewable energy are commercially feasible from a private sector point of view within the given regulatory frameworks.

 

The project Promotion of Solar-Hybrid Mini-Grids (ProSolar), implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), has set out to test the viability of mini-grids in Kenya, with the ultimate goal of accelerating rural electrification through private sector participation. The vision is to enhance the effectiveness, affordability, and sustainability of rural electrification projects. This is in line with the Government of Kenya’s Vision 2030, which foresees the country becoming a prosperous, newly industrialised country with a medium income and a high quality of life by the year 2030. The availability of adequate, reliable, and affordable electricity is a key factor in achieving this vision.

To this end, the ProSolar project, together with the German Agro Action, has supported Narok County to establish a pilot solar-hybrid mini-grid at Talek in the Masai Mara. The scheme consists of a generation plant of 50 kW and a LV distribution network which provides electricity at grid quality level to residents and businesses in Talek. The retail of electricity is done on a commercial basis through an innovative STS compliant Digital Prepaid Metering System (DPMS) that allows mobile money payment for electricity credits. 
 

 

The Talek Power Company, a Special Purpose Vehicle, has received a permit from the Energy Regulatory Commission of Kenya to generate and distribute electricity - the second project in Kenya to ever receive such a permit. As a result, a series of handbooks including 'How do we license it?' were published, which share the project’s lessons learnt and allow for complete replicability by future investors in other solar-hybrid mini-grids in Kenya.

The Talek project has so far demonstrated that given proper site selection and good project engineering, solar-hybrid mini-grids can indeed be profitable for private investors. Uptake in the community has been more rapid than envisioned.  Local residents and businesses are reporting on the benefits of having access to electricity at grid-quality level. 

GIZ ProSolar is, at the same time, working closely with policy makers on implementation mechanisms and financing instruments, as well as on strategies for the successful integration of mini-grids in rural electrification. 

For more information, please visit www.giz.de/en/worldwide/25332.html

 

  • Microgrid Global Innovation Forum (Barcelona, 16-17 Sep 2015)

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    This industry-open, technology-neutral event was an opportunity for energy professionals who were refining the business model and maximising the performance of hybrid renewable energy systems in remote, island, off-grid, and grid-connected environments.

    Around 80-90 attendees took part in the forum. Together with ARE members, ARE President Ernesto Macias shared ARE’s perspectives on the global market for microgrids and their potential both as standalone systems and as systems that can be integrated within the national grid.

  • 4th Energy Event: Challenges In Renewables In Middle East And Africa (Brussels, 18 Sep 2015)

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    What is the status of the renewable energy industry in the Middle East and Africa? What are its prospects? What are the key steps that lawmakers and the industry should push for?

    Policy & Business Development Officer David Lecoque will be presenting case studies from Sub-Saharan Africa, showcasing renewable energy mini-grid and off-grid solutions for industrial groups, large consumers, and public authorities.

  • WAME Workshop: Innovative Finance for Access to Energy (Milan, 21 Sep 2015)

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    After the success of its first cooperation at the 'Renewable Energy & Innovation towards SE4All' workshop on 17 June, ARE was again invited to contribute to the EXPO. This time round, the workshop brought together about 50 key players from companies and financiers to share the most recent developments and innovations and jointly discuss the way forward to ensure that innovative finance becomes available, reaches its intended targets, stimulates energy access projects and maximises its social impact. ARE Policy & Business Development Officer David Lecoque presented ARE initiatives on finance access in 2015 (video: 1:55:35).

  • PHAESUN OFF-GRID EXPERTS AWARD (MEMMINGEN, 26 SEP 2015)

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    The Off-Grid Experts Awards paid tribute to particularly innovative developments, experiences and impressions from the field of independent energy supply. Roughly 450 guests in particular from countries with poorly developed electricity networks from Africa, Latin America and the Middle East but also from Europe participated. Three out of four prize winners specialised in solar applications in Africa. ARE supported the competition and acted as a jury, where ARE members TTA and FRES were awarded prizes for best product and project categories respectively. The best photo and the best filmlet were identified with the help of a public voting.

  • SAIREC (CAPE TOWN, 4-7 OCT 2015)

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    The 6th in a series of International Renewable Energy Conferences (IRECs) and attracting 3,600 delegates from 82 countries, the South African International Renewable Energy Conference (SAIREC) took place for the first time on the African continent and was attended by government delegations, business leaders and members of civil society. The aim of the conference was to upscale and mainstream renewable energy in order to achieve a global sustainable energy transition. On the agenda for the first time, was the topic of rural electrification – providing an opportunity for participants to learn more on perspectives and engagement possibilities of clean decentralised energy technology solutions for Africa (press releaseSAIREC declaration esp. n°15; new Productive Use of Energy Paper).

  • IEC WORKSHOP FOR INDUSTRIALISING COUNTRIES: MICROGRIDS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION (MINSK, 14 OCT 2015)

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    In the framework of the IEC 79th General Meeting, the Workshop for Industrialising Countries focused on the theme of microgrids for rural electrification. Rosario Uría, the new IEC Affiliate Leader, chaired the event, gave the welcome address and introduced the speakers. 

    First to take the floor was Wenpeng Luan, Convenor of IEC Systems Evaluation Group (SEG) 6, who talked about what is central to his SEG, i.e. Non-traditional Distribution Networks/Microgrids. John Newbury, IEC TC 57: Power systems management and associated information exchange, updated the audience on Developments in smart microgrids. He was followed by Joseph Malama, Energy Regulation Board, Zambia, and Vimal Mahendru, Convenor of IEC SEG 4: Low Voltage Direct Current Applications, Distribution and Safety for use in Developed and Developing Economies, who presented case studies from Zambia and India respectively.

    Françoise Rauser, IEC Affiliate Executive Secretary, concluded the meeting by thanking the speakers for sharing their experiences and challenges and providing valuable information to help countries initiate and implement rural electrification projects.

  • INVITATION: EWI FAZ ENERGY CONGRESS (COLOGNE, 3 NOV 2015)

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    The conference, which focused in the past on grid issues, will address: ‘Decentralised electricity generation - is a revolution about to happen?’ this year. 

    ARE Executive Director Marcus Wiemann will contribute to the panel discussion on ‘Global trends in Distributed Generation and Heat’ chaired by Prof Dr Bettzuege, EWI Director.

  • INVITATION: AEEP ENERGY BUSINESS DIALOGUE EGYPT (CAIRO, 9 NOV 2015)

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    The forum, organised by our partner Africa-EU Energy Partnership (AEEP), will showcase investment in the energy sector in North Africa as well as cooperation opportunities between countries of the region and Europe for enhancing energy security, financial mechanisms and supporting SMEs and the role of the private sector in the development of the energy sector.

    The dialogue will provide a platform for North African stakeholders – especially Egyptian ones – from the private sector, public sector, academia and civil society to discuss, share experiences and determine priority areas of intervention to address the energy security issues facing North Africa. Furthermore, the forum participants will discuss priority areas of intervention to address the energy security issues that North Africa faces.

  • INVITATION: AFRICA INVESTMENT EXCHANGE: POWER & RENEWABLES (LONDON, 19-20 NOV 2015)

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    The 5th meeting in the Africa Investment Exchange series, AIX: Power & Renewables brings together a high-level audience from the private and public sectors to discuss the challenges facing investors, examine innovative structures emerging from deals along the electricity value chain and draw together recommendations for the future of the sector.

    ARE Executive Director Marcus Wiemann will provide insights at the panel on 'Impact Investors in Off-grid.'

  • THE PRODUCTIVE USE OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN AFRICA

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    By AEEP & ARE

    This paper addresses the need for reliable energy access for businesses to enable the productive use of clean energies. Energy security from private sector perspective means that present and future access to energy is guaranteed at affordable prices. It focuses on the benefits of Productive Use of Renewable Energy (“PURE”), highlights lessons learnt and challenges, and formulates recommendations to stimulate its spread and better realise its potential.

  • MINI-GRID POLICY TOOLKIT

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    By RECP, EUEI PDF, ARE & REN21

    The Mini-grid Policy Toolkit is for policy makers to navigate the mini-grid policy design process. It contains information on mini-grid operator models, the economics of mini-grids, and necessary policy and regulation that must be considered for successful implementation. The publication specifically focuses on Africa.

     

  • WHERE SHALL WE PUT IT? SOLAR MINI-GRID SITE SELECTION HANDBOOK

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    By GIZ

    Solar-hybrid mini-grids produce electrical energy through a mix of solar and any other resource — such as a renewable resource like wind, or a fossil fuel like diesel used as a back-up. This site selection criteria handbook was developed with flexibility in mind, and can be used as a guideline by all actors in the energy sector to perform a site selection analysis for any mini-grid project, by carefully selecting the appropriate parameters that apply to their own areas of implementation.

Please note that views expressed in the Co-Editorial, the In Focus section and the Special Feature of the newsletter, are those of the contributors and do not necessarily reflect ARE’s opinion.

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